Zen Backpack Sewing Thread Size

 

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Backpack Sewing Thread Size

 

 

Needle Size to Thread Size Charts

Determining the size of thread and ciphering through the various sizing systems may seem difficult and confusing because it is. Some sizing systems use an inversely proportionate scale, where larger numbered sizes correlate to finer thread, while other systems use directly proportionate scales where larger numbered sizes correlate larger thread, while other systems use a completely arbitrary scheme.  To complicated maters worse, not only do different manufactures use different sizing systems, many will use different systems for each of their own kinds of threads.

 

Thread can be measured by its linear density (mass), diameter or strength of a given thread. 

 

Linear Density

Compared to Needle Size

 


Linear Density

The most common way of sizing tread is by it linear density.  This measures the weight of a particular length of strand or yarn.  The most common systems are Weight, Cotton Count, Denier and Tex.

 

Some common systems include:

Tex The ISO standard
Nm Metric
NeC Cotton (English)
NeW Worsted
Ny Woolen (Yorkshire)
NeL Linen
NeS Silk
Td International Denier
dTex equals 0.1 tex
Run American woolen unit
Cut American Wool

 

Estimated Comparison of Various Yarn Sizes

denier worsted cotton woolen
(run)
linen
(lea)
tex metric
50 160 106 56 298 5.6 180
75 106 71 37 198 8.3 120
100 80 53 28 149 11.1 90
150 53 35 19 99 16.6 60
200 40 27 14 74 22.2 45
300 27 18 9.3 50 33.4 30
400 20 13 7.0 37 44.4 22.5
500 16 11 5.6 30 55.5 18
700 11.4 7.6 4.0 21 77.7 12.9
1000 8.0 5.3 2.8 15 111 9
1500 5.3 3.5 1.9 10 166 6
2000 4.0 2.7 1.4 7 222 4.5

 

 

Weight Systems

There are two major types of weight systems, the fixed weight systems and and fixed length systems.  The sizes of fixed weight systems become larger as the thread and/or yarn becomes finer, while fixed length systems become larger as the thread and/or yarn becomes larger.

 

Fixed Weight Systems
These systems use the length of yarn that make up a given weight.  Therefore, the larger weight, the lighter the thread. 

 

Number Metrical (Nm)

Metric count is number of meters per gram of yarn.  This number is followed by a slash and the number of threads of this weight that make up the strand.

 

A thread labeled 50/3 describes a yarn composed of 3 strands that would each span 50 meter and weigh 1 gram or 0.02gms per meter each.  A single gram of this triple ply yarn would span 16.67 meters.

 

Cotton Count (NeC or cc)

The cotton count is the US accepted industry standard utilized in sizing spun threads.  It is the number of 840 yard hanks of yarn it takes to equal 1 pound.  Written as a fraction the numerator (top/first number) is the count per strand and the denominator (bottom/second number) is the number of plies.

 

size 1/1 is a tread constructed of 1 strand weighing 1 pound per 840 yards

size 1/2 is a tread constructed of 2 strands each weighing 1 pound per 840 yards

size 2/1 is a tread constructed of 1 strand weighing 1 pound per 1680 (840x2) yards

 

The term Yarn Size is often used interchangeably with Cotton Count, but can also be used to describe any number of sizing systems.

 

Equivalent Size

With the cotton count system, similar sized threads can be constructed with differing numbers of plies and thread diameters.  An equivalent size for a thread can be determined by dividing the yarn count by the of plies.  For example - each of the following size 15 threads are about the same density:

 

30/2

45/3

60/4

 

Thread Weight

Thread weight is a popular US size measurement system, particularly for embroidery thread. It was a poor conversion from the Japanese Gunze Count standard that originally discounted the strand count.  A 30/2 and 30/3, meaning size 30 with two strand and size 30 with three strands respectively, would both be resized as 30wt.  This sizing system is therefore often inconstant and confusing since it isn't always clear what the US weight really means.

 

The weight often represents the strand weight of a yarn if it were composed of only 2 plies.

 

Cut (Nac)

In the cut system, the yarn number is the number of 300 yard hanks needed to make up a pound.  It is a US system for sizing wool and was used in and around the state of Philadelphia.

 

5-7 cut are generally coarse yarns

18-21 cut are medium yarns

30-35 cut are find yarns

 

A fraction is used to describe the weight of multi-ply yarn. The numerator (top/first number) is the number of plies. The denominator (bottom/second number) is the cut or run number of the yarn as a whole, not of the plies separately.

 

2/5s cut yarn is made up of two plies, and the yarn 1500 yards long weighs a pound.  Each ply would be 10-cut each.

 

Run system (Nar)

The run system is another US wool measuring system that is/was used in other parts of the US.  It is the yarn number is the length in yards of one pound of the yarn, divided by 1600.

 

Numbers 1 through 3 runs are coarse

Numbers 3½ to 5 are medium

Numbers 6 to 8 runs are fine

 

Worsted Yarns (NeW or Count system)

Worsted yarns is another wool system with 1 count yarn having a length of 560 yards to the pound.

 

2-count yarn is 1120 yards per pound

 

Linen Count (NeL)

A sizing system for linen used in the UK and US.  The yarns are the number of leas (300 yards) in a pound.  Linen can be spun as fine as 400s and even 600s.

 


Fixed Length Systems
These systems use the weight of a given length.  The larger the size number, the heavier the thread. 

 

Titer Denier (Td aka metric yarn number)

Denier (a French coin, = 1/12 of a sou) is a US accepted standard for filament measuring where the weight in grams per 9,000 meters of thread (grams of a 450 meters of yarn divided by 0.05). 

 

A 200 denier thread weighs 200 grams per 9,000 meters or about 0.02gms per meter

 

Unlike cotton, the count in a fraction representing multi-ply yarn describes the finished yarn, not the plies.

 

150/3 is a three stranded yarn that is 150 grams per 9,000 meters with each strand being 50 grams per 9,000 meters.

 

Denier was originally used to measure silk strands that can vary in size.  A fraction was used to represent a range of sizes.

 

13/16 denier identifies thread that is between 13 and 16 deniers in wieght.

 

To complicate thing a bit more, there are several denier systems of old.

international” denier

mass in grams of a 500-meter length ÷ 0.05
Turin denier mass in grams of a 474-meter length ÷ 0.05336
Milan denier mass in grams of a 476-meter length ÷ 0.0511
Old Lyonese denier mass in grams of a 476-meter length ÷ 0.5311
New Lyonese denier mass in grams of a 500-meter length ÷ 0.05311

 

Tex Size

Tex is an international standard for industrial sewing thread where the number or grams per 1,000 meters of thread.  The larger the tex size, the heaver the thread.  A 20 tex thread weighs 20 grams per 1,000 meters or about 0.02gms per meter.  A decidex or dtex is mass in grams per 10,000 meters of thread.

 

Tex is often rounded off to the following relative sizes:

Light Weight Threads   Medium Weight Threads   Heavy Weight Threads
Tex# 10.0 to 11.9 = Tex 10   Tex# 27.0 to 34.9 = Tex 27   Tex# 40.0 to 49.9 = Tex 40
Tex# 12.0 to 15.9 = Tex 12   Tex# 35.0 to 39.9 = Tex 35   Tex# 50.0 to 59.9 = Tex 50
Tex# 16.0 to 17.9 = Tex 16       Tex# 60.0 to 79.9 = Tex 60
Tex# 18.0 to 20.9 = Tex 18       Tex# 80.0 to 89.9 = Tex 80
Tex# 21.0 to 23.9 = Tex 21       Tex# 90.0 to 104.9 = Tex 90
Tex# 24.0 to 26.9 = Tex 24        

 

Manchester dram system

This was formerly used for thrown silk, where the yarn number is the number of drams for a 1000 yard skein of yarn.

 

Conversions

  Tex Decitex

(dTex)

Denier

(den)

Metric

(Nm)

Cotton Count

(NeC)

Worsted

(NeW)

Linen

(NeL)

Tex   dTex/10 den/9 1000/Nm 590.54/NeC 885.8/NeW 1653.5/NeL
Decitex tex x 10   den/0.9 10,000/Nm 5905.4/Nec 8858/NeW 16535/NeL
Denier tex x 9 dTexx 0.9   9000/Nm 5314.9/NeC 7972.3/NeW 14882/NeL
Metric Count 1000/tex 10,000/dTex 9000/den   NeC x 1.6934 NeW x 1.13 NeL x 0.6048
Cotton Count 590.54/tex 5905.4/dTex 5314.9/den Nm x 0.5905   NeW/1.5 NeL/2.8
Worsted 885.8/tex 8858/dTex 7972.3/den Nm x 0.8858 NeC x 1.5   NeL/1.87
Linen 1653.5/tex 16535/dTex 14882/den Nm x 1.6535 NeC x 2.8 NeW x x1.87  

 

 


Thread Diameter

Another way to measure thread size is by determining the needle size needed for that thread.  You can then compare multiple sizing schemes to each other.

 

Here are some charts to cross compare thread size with appropriate needle size.

 

Chart 1

Polyester stranded TKT

Polyester stranded TEX

Polyester stranded Government VT285 types I&II

Polyester monofilament TEX

Polyester monofilament TKT

Polyester monofilament Government VT285 type III

 

Chart 2

Polyester, spun

Polyester, multifilament

Polyester, textured

Nylon stranded TKT

Nylon stranded Government VT295 types I&II

Nylon monofilament TKT

 

Chart 3

Synthetic

Generic TEX

Metric synthetic

unknown (letter/number)

T-series

Government

Chart 4

Cotton, polyester core

Cotton

Cotton, soft

Cotton, mercerized

 

Chart 5

Cotton 4-cord

Cotton 3-cord

Linen

Silk

 

 

 

Chart 1

 

Needle
Size

Polyester

stranded

TKT

Polyester

stranded

TEX

Polyester stranded

Gov. VT285

types I&II

Polyester
mono

TEX

Polyester
mono

TKT

Polyester mono

Gov. VT285

type III

60 12 12        
65 12, 15 12, 16 00      
70 12, 15, 23 12, 16, 24 00, A/3      
80 23, 30 24, 30 A/3, AA/2      
90 23, 30, 46 24, 30, 45 AA/2, B2 45 46 B
100 30, 46, 69 30, 45, 70 AA/2, B/2, E/3 45, 70 46, 69 B, E
110 46, 69 45, 70 B/2, E/3 45, 70 46, 69 B, E
120 69, 92 70, 90 E/3, F/4 70, 90 69, 92 E, F
140 92, 138 90, 135 F/4, FF/3 90, 120 92, 110 F
150 138 135 FF/3 90, 120 92, 110 F
160 138 135 FF/3 120 110  
180 138, 207 135, 210 FF/3, #3 120 110  
200 207, 277 210 #3      
230 207, 277, 346 210, 270 #3, #4      
250 207, 277, 346, 415 210, 270 #3, #4      
280 277, 346, 415 270 #4      
300 346, 415          
330 415          
350 415          

 

 

Chart 2

 

Needle

Size

Spun

polyester

Multifilament

polyester

Textured

polyester

Nylon stranded

TKT

Nylon stranded

Gov. VT295

types 1+2

Nylon mono

TKT

55   15        
60 120 15, 18 150, T-18      
65 120, 100 18 150, T-18     15-00
70 100 23 200, T-24 23 A/3 15-00, 23,
75 70 23, 25 200, T-24 23   23,
80 70 25, 33 300, T-35 23, 33 A/3, AA/3 23, 37-B,
90 50, 40 33 300, T-35, 450 33, 46-2, 46 AA/3, B2, B3 37-B, 37-5, 46-5X,
100 50, 40 46 450 33, 46-2, 46, 58, 69 B2, B3, E3 37-5, 46-5X, 58-8, 69-8X
110 30, 24 46, 69 600 46-2, 46, 58, 69 B2, B3, E3 37-5, 46-5X, 58-8, 69-8X
120 30, 24 69 600 58, 69, 92, 99 E3, F4 58-8, 69-8X, 92,
140 16 92, 99   92, 99, 138 F4, FF3 92, 125, 138
160 16, 12 92, 99   138 FF3 125, 138, 147
180 12 138   138, 207 FF3, 3/3 125, 138, 147
200   138   207, 277 3/3 147
230       207, 277, 346 3/3, 4/3 147
250       207, 277, 346, 415 3/3, 4/3 147
280       277, 346, 415 4/3  
300       346, 415    
330       415    

 

 

Chart 3

 

Needle

Size

Synthetic Generic

TEX

Metric

synthetic

unknown T Series Government
55   16     T-16 00
60   16, 18     T-16 00
65   18, 21 130      
70   21, 24 130   T-23 A
75   24, 27, 30 120 B T-23 A
80 120, 100 27, 30, 35 120, 100 B T-35 AA
90 100, 80 35, 40, 45 100, 75 B, C T-35 AA
100 80, 60 40, 45, 50 75 B, C T-50 B
110   50, 60, 70 50 C, E, F T-50, T-70 B, E
120   60, 70, 80 50, 30 C, E, F, FF T-70 E
140   80, 90, 105 30, 25 #125, #250 T-90, T-105 F
160   90, 105, 120, 135 25, 20 #250 T-90, T-105 F
180   120, 135, 180 20, 15 #250, #343 T-150 FF
200   180 15 #343 T-150, T-200 FF, #3
230       #343, #350 T-200, T-300 #3, #4
250       #350 T-300 #4, #5
280       #350 T-450 #5, #6
300         T-450 #6

 

 

Chart 4

 

Needle
Size
Cotton

Polyester core

Cotton Soft Cotton Mercerized

Cotton

55        
60        
65     90, 80 0000
70 100   90, 80 0000
75 100   70 000, 00/2
80 70 60, 50 70, 60, 50 000, 00/2, 00/3
90 70, 50 50, 40 60, 50, 40, 36 00/3, 0
100 50, 40 40, 30 40, 36, 30 0, A, B
110 40, 30   36, 30, 24 A, B, C
120 30   30, 24 C, D
130 24   24/4, 20/4, 16/4 D, E
140 24   24/4, 20/4, 16/4,12/4 E
160 16   12/4  
180 16, 12      
200 12      

 

 

Chart 5

 

Needle

Size

Cotton

4-cord

Cotton

3-cord

Linen Silk
65   90/3    
70   90/3, 80/3    
75   90/3, 80/3, 70/3    
80 60/4 80/3, 70/3, 60/3   100, #00, #0
90 60/4 60/3, 50/3 70 80, #0, A
100 60/4, 50/4, 40/4 50/3, 40/3, 36/3 60 70, A, B
110 50/4, 40/4, 36/4, 30/4 40/3, 36/3, 30/3, 24/3   B, C
120 40/4, 30/4, 24/4, 20/4 24/3, 20/3   D, E
140 16/4, 12/4 16/3, 12/3, 10/3    
160 12/4 12/3, 10/3    
180 12/4, 10/4 10/3    
200 10/4      
230 10/4 8/3    
250   8/3    
280   8/3    
300        
330 8/4, (8/5)      

 

 


 

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